Marie Curie, née Maria Skłodowska, (born November 7, 1867, Warsaw, Congress Poland, Russian Empire – died July 4, 1934, Passy, Haute-Savoie, Third French Republic) was a Polish-born physicist and chemist, remembered for pioneering research on radioactivity and contribution to the fight against cancer.
Her greatest achievements are the theory of radioactivity and the discovery of polonium and radium. She founded the Curie Institutes, in Paris and Warsaw, and was the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris. During the First World War, Marie Curie developed small, mobile X-ray units to help diagnose injuries.
In 1903, Marie Curie and her husband Pierre were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics, along with Henri Becquerel, for their work on the radiation phenomena. In 1911, she received a second Nobel Prize, this time in Chemistry, for the discovery of the elements radium and polonium.
Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, and the first person and only woman to win this prestigious award twice. She is also the only one to win a Nobel Prize in two separate sciences.
Marie Curie also had a great impact on redefining women’s position in society and science.