Baruch Spinoza (born November 24, 1632, Amsterdam, Dutch Republic – died February 21, 1677, The Hague, Dutch Republic) was a Dutch philosopher and one of the key figures of the 17th-century Dutch and European Enlightenment. He is famous for the development of monist philosophy, which is known as Spinozism.
Spinoza’s magnum opus, the Ethics, was written in Latin and first published posthumously in 1677. The work earned him recognition as one of the foremost thinkers of Western philosophy.
The significance of Spinoza’s work was not fully understood many years after his death. Today, Spinoza is considered one of the great rationalists of the 17th-century philosophy.